[免费下载]皮革工业术语表 Leather Industry Glossary Terms

2018-12-20 09:43:57 作者:管理员 已有5088次浏览 收藏
              

Leather Industry Glossary Terms

皮革工业术语表

 

 Adipose tissue脂肪组织

The underlying layer of a hide or skin, known as the "flesh". In the preparation of the skin for tanning, the adipose tissue is thoroughly removed by the fleshing operation in the beamhouse.

在皮的底层,就是为大家所知的""。在准备工段准备鞣制时,去肉时脂肪组织会彻底被去除。

 

Air-dried hides or skins风干皮

Hides cured by exposure of the flesh side to mild rays of the sun until they are dry: usually the hides are tensioned by lacing into a square wooden frame.

将生皮的肉面对着温和阳光直到干燥:通常皮会被拉伸固定在方形木框。

 

Aniline leather苯胺皮革

Leather that has been through-dyed and then finished with transparent finishing chemicals so as to retain the natural beauty of the leather. No opaque finishing chemicals are used in the finishing formulation.

已经经过染色,然后用透明化学品涂饰剂涂饰以保持皮革的天然之美的皮革。在涂饰配方中不使用不透明涂饰剂。

 

Back背部

The main portion of a raw hide, obtained by first cutting the hide longitudinally along the backbone, then trimming off head and belly, leaving a "bend" and shoulder.

原料皮的主要部分,将原料皮沿背脊线方向分开,再去掉头部和腹部,剩下的肩部和腰背部(臀背部)部分。

 

Bacterial action细菌作用

Deteriorative effects on hides, skins or leather caused by bacteria.

生皮或皮革由细菌引起的变质效果。

 

Barkometer巴克表

A special hydrometer used in tanneries to test the strength of tanning liquids by specific density.

在制革厂使用的,一种测试液体强度由比密度表示的特殊比重计。

 

Base coat底涂

Usually the first finish coat that is applied to the leather surface.

通常是应用在皮革表面的第一次涂饰层。

 

Basification提碱(碱化)

The chemical binding of the tanning chemicals to the skin protein. This is achieved by raising the pH slowly in the tanning liquor.

鞣性化学品与皮蛋白的化学结合(绑定),通过缓慢提高鞣液pH值达到。

 

Bating软化

The softening of skins by treating them with pancreatic enzymes. The enzymes remove unwanted skin components (unwanted nitrogenous constituents) making the final leather soft.

用胰酶或其他蛋白酶对皮进行的软化(变软)处理。酶除去多余的皮组分(不需要的含氮成分)让最后的皮革柔软。

 

Beam刮(刨)皮板

A convex wooden slab sloping downwards from about waist height, over which a hide or skin is placed for trimming off excess flesh or for unhairing by hand.

凸圆的木制厚板,从大约腰高位置向下倾斜,皮放在上面以修剪或去除多余的肉及用手推毛脱毛。

 

Beamhouse准备工段(车间)

The area of a tannery where non-leather forming substances are removed from the skin prior to tanning. The beamhouse operations include soaking, fleshing, liming, unhairing, deliming and bating. The name "beamhouse" was originally applied to the building where skilled artisans fleshed hides and scraped away all hair and epidermis prior to tanning. The hide was spread over a broad oval wooden beam, and hence the name.

准备车间是皮革厂在鞣制前将非皮革组成物质从皮中去除的车间。准备工段包括浸水,去肉,脱毛、浸灰,脱灰和软化。名称“准备车间原先是指鞣制前熟练的工匠对皮去肉和刮掉所有毛和表皮的地方,将皮铺开放在凸圆的木板上,因此得名。

 

Belly腹部

The underside of a hide between the fore and the hind legs.

皮的下部,位于前、后肢之间。

 

Bend后背皮

The portion of a cattle hide remaining after the hide has been cut in half and the shoulder and belly portions have been trimmed off. The bend is usually the best part of the hide and is used for making soles of boots and shoes, saddles etc. The term bend is only used inrefeering to tanned leather. For untanned hides, the term croupon is used.

将牛皮(沿背脊线)两分后,头颈部及腹部被修剪去除后剩余皮的部分。后背皮通常是皮革最好的部分,常被用于制造靴子底和鞋底,马鞍等。Bend一词仅指鞣后的皮革。对于未鞣制皮革,描述后背皮使用术语croupon

 

Boil test煮沸试验

A test applied to chrome-tanned leather during the tannage to ascertain whether or not it is fully tanned. A 10cm x 10cm piece of wet blue is placed in boiling water for 2 - 3 minutes. If the wet blue curls or shrinks, it is considered not fully tanned or properly basified.

适用于铬鞣皮革的一种试验,在鞣制过程中用以确定皮革是否完全鞣制。将 10 厘米 x 10 厘米的一块蓝湿皮放入滚水中煮 2-3 分钟。如果蓝湿皮卷曲或收缩,认为鞣制不完全或没有适当碱化。

 

Bovine

Animal of the ox or cow family

公牛或母牛的牛或牛科动物。

 

Branding烙印

Marking or printing with a hot iron, freeze process, or punch. Cattle are branded with markings that identify ownership but also damages the hide.

标志或印刷用热铁、冻结过程中或冲床。牛都烙上的标记来标识所有权,但也损害了隐藏的印记。

 

Break折纹

The break of leather refers to the pattern of parallel folds or tiny wrinkles formed on the grain side when it is bent inwards. Leather buyers often flex shoe upper leather in order to get an indication of the way in which the appearance of the leather will be preserved in a shoe during wear.

皮革的折纹路将皮内折在粒面上形成的平行细折或微细皱纹。皮革买家经常来回弯曲鞋面革检查以得到皮革在做成鞋子用于穿着时皮革表面是否会保持不变。

 

Brine盐水

A saturated solution of common salt and water used for preserving raw stock to be later used for making leather.

食盐和水的饱和溶液,用于制革原料皮防腐。

 

Buffed leather 磨面革

Leather from which the top surface of the grain has been removed by an abrasive cylinder of sandpaper.

皮革的粒面被装有砂纸的粗糙圆筒磨掉去除后的皮革。

 

Buffer solution缓冲溶液

A solution of a weak acid or alkali and the corresponding salt used to minimize changes in pH values.

弱酸或弱碱及相应的盐组成的溶液,用于使pH 值的变化最小化。

 

Butt臀部

The part of the hide left after the bellies and shoulders have been removed.

动物皮在腹部和肩部被去除后的部分。

 

Calf leather小牛皮皮革

Leather made from the skins of young cattle from a few days to a few weeks old. It is soft, fine-grained and supple and possesses considerable strength in relation to its weight and substance. It is lighter weight than cowhide leathers and more supple; also lighter and finer grained than side, kip or split leathers, which are used in place of calf leather for many purposes. Calf leather may be either chrome or vegetable tanned, chrome leather being the most common.

小牛皮皮革是用几天到几周的小牛皮生产的。它柔软、粒面细致,相对其重量和材料来讲其具有相当不错的强度的。它比牛皮皮革重量更轻和更柔软,比半边皮革、幼牛皮革和剖层革也更轻和粒面细致,这些也在小牛皮皮革使用的领域使用。小牛皮皮革可能是铬鞣或植鞣,最常见的是铬鞣革。

 

Casein酪素

A protein substance prepared by precipitation of skim milk. Large quantities of casein are used by the tanning industry in making leather finishes. It is never applied alone, but always mixed with solutions of other materials such as shellac or Irish moss or with emulsions of wax, etc.

由牛奶沉淀制备的一种蛋白物质。大量的酪素用于制革业做皮革涂饰剂。酪素都不是单独使用,总是和其他类似虫胶或爱尔兰苔或是蜡乳液等的溶液混合使用。

 

Cattle hide牛原皮

The skin of a fully grown bovine animal.

完全长成的牛类动物皮。

 

Chamois油鞣革

A soft pliable absorbent oil tanned leather which is recognized in this country and abroad as being made from sheepskin, from which the outer or grain side has been split prior to tanning, known technically as a flesher.

一种柔软、易吸水的油鞣皮革,被国内外认可的是由绵羊皮制成,在鞣制前粒面外层被片掉,技术上也称绵羊皮肉面剖层皮。

 

Chrome leather铬鞣革

A blue colored leather that has been chrome tanned. It does not wet black readily and is heat stable in boiling water. It is stronger than vegetable-tanned leather and is usually dyed and finished.

用铬鞣剂鞣制的呈蓝色的皮革。它不容易回湿和在沸腾的热水中稳定。它比植物鞣强度强,后续通常要染色和涂饰。

 

Chrome liquor铬液

Solution of basic chrome salt, usually basic chromium sulphate, used in chrome tanning.

碱式铬盐溶液,通常为碱式铬硫酸,在铬鞣中使用。

 

Chrome re-tan 铬复鞣

Leather which has been first chrome tanned throughout its thickness and subsequently further treated or tanned with vegetable or synthetic tanning agents, or resin filling materials; these may be partially or fully penetrated.

整个厚度用铬初鞣的的皮革,后续会进一步用植物鞣剂或合成鞣剂,或是树脂填充材料处理;这些材料可能部分或完全渗透。

 

Chrome tanning extract铬鞣剂

Green crystals of chrome salt, prepared by the reduction of sodium dichromat and sulfuric acid with a reducing agent; supplied for tanning pelts by the one-bath chrome-tanning process.

铬盐的绿色结晶体,由重铬酸钠和硫酸加上还原剂还原制得,提供给制革厂一浴铬鞣法鞣制皮革使用。

 

Collagen胶原

The main skin protein that is tanned and which becomes leather. Most other skin components are removed during the beamhouse processes.

主要的皮蛋白,可以被鞣制并且成为皮革。大多数其他皮结构成分会在准备工段中去除。

 

Combination tannage结合鞣

A process of tanning leather by a combination of tanning agents. This combination may consist of several vegetable-tanning materials, or of vegetable - and mineral-tanning agents.

由不同鞣剂结合的皮革鞣剂工艺。这种结合可能由几种植物鞣剂材料,或植物鞣剂和矿物鞣剂组成。

 

Conditioning回湿

The addition of a small amount of moisture into the crust leather for lubrication and to render them supple prior to some of the harsh softening processes that follow (staking, milling). Conditioning may be done by cooling, sawdusting, or by damping with water in pile.

把少量的水分加入到坯革中,以在进行随后更剧烈的整软工序(拉软,摔软)前起到润滑和使皮坯柔然的操作。回湿可以通过冷却,滚锯末或是堆垛汽蒸/浸湿回湿。

 

Corium真皮层

The second layer of a hide or skin, containing the fiber mass that is the real leather-making part of the skin. The corium also known as the derma, or true skin, is made up of fibers, which are long strands of fine threadlike units, or fibrils (little fibers). The fibers are arranged into little groups, or fiber bundles and theses bundles are the architectural units of the skin.

生皮的第二层,包含的是真正的皮革制成部分纤维聚集。真皮层也称为皮肤或真皮,是由纤维组成,纤维是长链的细丝状的单位或原纤维(小纤维)。纤维成小组或纤维束排列,并且这些纤维束是生皮的建筑(结构)单位。

 

Corrected grain修面

Term used to describe leathers which have been buffed to remove grain blemishes and scars before final finishing. The grain correction improves the appearance of the leather without necessarily detracting from its strength and quality.

这个术语是用于描述在最后涂饰整理前磨去粒面瑕疵和疤痕的皮革。粒面修饰改善了皮革的外观,不一定降低强度和质量。

 

Country hides乡村皮

Hides from country areas removed by relatively unskilled labor, e.g. by country butchers or smaller packing plants where they are more likely to be damaged and/or less uniform in shape and therefore command lower prices than big-packer hides.

从乡村地区收集来的生皮,由相对非技术性劳工如乡村屠夫或较小的牲畜屠宰加工厂剥皮而得,生皮更可能损坏和/或形状不均,因此可要求比大型屠宰场更低的价格。

 

Crosslinkers交联剂

Chemicals which are used to toughen the finish film and which are also used to improve the water resistance of polyurethane resins and lacquers.

用于硬化涂层的化学品,也用于提高聚氨酯树脂和漆涂饰的耐水性。

 

Crust leather皮坯,坯皮

Leather that has been through the dyehouse processes and has been dried, but not yet finished.

已经通过染色并已干燥但尚未涂饰的皮革。

 

Curing防腐

The treatment of raw hides and skins after flaying to retard bacterial action and putrefaction. When thoroughly cured by any one of several common methods, the hides and skins are stored until they are taken by the tanner, whose first operations are to soak the hides and skins for softening and submit them to further preparatory treatment before they can be tanned into leathers.

剥皮后延缓细菌作用和腐化的生皮处理。当采用任一的几种常用方法完全防腐处理后,原料生皮就可以储存起来,直到制革厂取走;制革厂的第一个加工操作就是浸水以使生皮回软,并使生皮为在鞣制前的进一步处理做准备。

 

Degreasing 脱脂

Removal of salt and excess grease from pigskins, sheepskins, etc by drumming stock in a liquor containing kerosene and slat, gasoline, or similar hydrocarbons, before tanning. Patent leather is frequently degreased by drumming the dry leather in naphtha after tanning and before applying the finishing coats. The residual grease recovered through degreasing operation is often refined and used as a tanning oil.

鞣制前在转鼓中从猪皮,绵羊皮等去除盐和大量脂肪的操作,脱脂浴液中含有煤油、盐、汽油或类似碳水化合物。漆皮经常用转鼓将鞣后涂饰前干的皮坯放在石脑油脱脂。通过脱脂操作收回的残余油脂常被提炼出来并可加工后用于制革。

 

Deliming脱灰

The removal of lime from the skin usually achieved by ammonium sulphate or ammonium chloride. The skin swelling is reduced as the pH is reduced. After the deliming process, the hides and skins are then in a condition for bating.

将石灰从皮中移除,通常使用硫酸铵或氯化铵获得。随着pH值降低,皮膨胀程度也降低。脱灰后,皮变薄,适合软化的条件。

 

Depilation脱毛

The process of loosening the hair on hides and skins to permit its removal without damage to the stock.

生皮毛松动并允许毛去除而不伤及皮板的过程(工序)。

 

Detergent洗涤剂

Surface-active compounds or formulation added to the water that serve to cleanse skin, such as soap for instance.

表面活性化合物或复配物,加入到水中可以清洁肌肤,如肥皂。

 

Drawn grain起皱

The wrinkling of the grain layer due to uneven swelling or excess mechanical action during the liming process. The main leather substance has contracted relative to the grain layer leaving a puckered grain effect which may appear as parallel ridges if the contractions occur in one direction only, or may appear as an overall pebbled effect if the contractions form uniformly in all directions.

由于不均匀的膨胀或浸灰工序中过多的机械作用引起的粒面层起纹。主要皮革物质相对粒面层收缩,形成折皱的粒面效果,如果收缩只沿一个方向可能以平行的起伏纹出现;如果在所有方向均匀收缩则可能以整体的鹅卵石效果出现。

 

Drum dyeing转鼓染色

The most commonly employed method of applying dyestuffs to leathers. In drum dyeing, the leather stock is placed in a drum, neutralized and then washed with warm water to remove soluble salts. The coloring matter is added to the revolving drum, and the dyeing procedure is generally carried out at 60°C for 1 to 3 hours.

最常采用的染色皮革的方法。在转鼓染色,皮坯置于转鼓内,中和后用热水洗去可溶性中性盐。染色材料加入旋转的转鼓内,一般温度60 oC,时间 1 3 个小时。

 

Dry-salted hides 盐干皮

Hides which have been salted in the same manner as green salted hides, i.e. by covering them with salt on the flesh side and piling (see Curing), but are later spread out and allowed to dry in the shade or sun. It is used as a curing method instead of flint drying because the hides do not shrink during drying and are much more readily softened in soaking prior to tanning.

生皮以鲜盐湿皮同样方式盐腌起来,也就是用食盐在肉面将生皮盖住并堆垛,但是腌好后铺开在阴凉处或阳光下干燥。这种防腐方法用来替代干燥法是因为生皮在干燥过程中不收缩,并且更容易在鞣前的浸水工序中回软。

 

Drying干燥防腐法

One of the simplest forms of curing hides and skins; now chiefly use for goatskins coming from areas where other forms of cure would be difficult, or where salt is not available. The skins are dried spread out in the sunshine or in the shade with good ventilation and are called flint-dried when completely cured because of their hardness.

最简单的生皮干防腐法之一,现在主要用于来自其他防腐方法困难或食盐不易获取的区域的山羊皮防腐。生皮在阳光下铺开,或是置于通风良好的阴晾处干燥,当完全处理好后由于其发硬被称为干燥法防腐。

 

Dye染料

A dye (or dyestuff) is usually an organic compound used to impart color to a substance. It may be used for the coloring of animal, vegetable, or synthetic fibers (e.g. wool, leather, fur or cotton). Insoluble coloring matters are called "pigments". Dyes may be classified in accordance with their chemical characteristics.

染料通常是用来将颜色传授到另一种物质的一种有机化合物。它可用于使来自于动物、植物、或合成纤维(如羊毛、皮革、裘皮或棉花)的纤维着色。有不溶性着色的材料被称为"颜料"。染料可以按照其化学特性进行分类。

 

Dyeing染色

The dyeing of the wet blue or wet white to the color required by the customer.

根据客户要求的颜色对蓝湿皮或白湿皮的着色。

 

Embossing压花

A process similar to plating but instead of a smooth plate being used, an engraved plate is used, which presses a pattern into the leather surface. This is produced by pressure upon the grain surface of leather. The pattern may be transferred from a plate or roller according to the type of embossing machine. The engraved embossing plate or roller is heated which assists in transferring the pattern to the leather surface.

类似于平板熨平但用的不是光滑的钢板,用的是刻纹的钢板,把一种花纹熨压到皮革表面。这通过对粒面加压获得。花纹可从平板或压花滚筒转移,取决于使用的压花机类型。刻纹压花平板或滚筒被加热,协助将花纹转移到皮革表面。

 

Emulsifying乳化

Combining two liquids that are not mutually soluble, such as oil and water, into a homogeneous emulsion.

将两种不互溶的,如油和水,结合成一种均匀的乳液的过程。

 

Enzymes酶制剂

A soluble, colloidal protein catalyst produced by a living organism. Trypsin, the most important enzyme in leather manufacturing, comes chiefly from cattle pancreas and certain mold. Trypsin is the active ingredient of tryptic bates which are enzyme bating material and of the enzyme dehairing formulations.

是一种由活体微生物生产的胶体蛋白催化剂。胰蛋白酶,皮革生产应用最重要的酶制剂,主要来自牛胰腺和一种霉菌。胰蛋白酶是胰软化酶的活性成分,用于软化酶和酶脱毛配方。

 

Epidermis表皮

The protective film of keratin cells over the dermis. It is composed of an outermost layer of dead cells mainly and a transitional layer that contains newly formed cells. These layers are removed in the process of liming or unhairing (depilation).

真皮上面的角质细胞保护膜。它由主要最外层的死细胞,和包含新形成细胞的过渡层组成。这些表皮层会在浸灰或脱毛过程中去除。

 

Fallen hides死牲畜皮

Hides taken from cattle that have died naturally as distinct from those which have been slaughtered. There is a large proportion of fallen hides among Indian hides.

取自于自然死亡,有别于那些屠宰的牛的皮。在印度生皮中有很大一部分是死牲畜皮。

 

Fatliquor加脂剂

An emulsion of oils and grease with soap or sulphated oils in which hides and skins are worked after tanning to lubricate the fibers, add flexibility to the leather and increase strength. A wide variety of oils, greases and emulsifying agents are used for this purpose and fatliquoring processes vary accordingly. The purpose is the same in each case, to lubricate the fibers and improve the leather flexibility.

油和油脂的皂或硫酸化油乳液,加入鞣后的皮革中可润滑皮纤维,增加皮革的柔韧性和提高强度。种类繁多的油、油脂脂和乳化剂用于此目的,加脂过程也会相应变化。加脂目的相同,即润滑纤维和提高皮革柔韧性。

 

Fatliquoring加脂

The addition of oils or fatliquors to the leather to make the leather soft. The more fatliquor that is added, the softer the leather becomes.

将油或加脂剂添加到皮革,使皮革柔软的过程/工序。加脂剂添加的越多,皮革就变得越柔软。

 

Fixation固定

The use of formic acid to lower the pH of the leather resulting in the binding of the dyehouse chemicals to the leather.

使用甲酸降低皮革的pH值,导致染浴中化学品结合到皮革上的过程/工序。

 

Flaying剥皮

Process of removal of the hide or skin from the animal carcass.

将皮从动物尸体取下来的过程。

 

Flesh side肉面

Flesh surface of the hide as opposed to the hair-bearing or grain side.

生皮靠肉的表面,相对应的是长毛的一面或是粒面。

 

Flesh pitting点蚀

Small bacterially-caused spots or depressions on the flesh surface of leather. They often dye lighter in color in contrast with the surrounding unaffected areas of the flesh surface.

皮革肉面上由细菌引起的小斑点或小凹坑。同周边没有受影响的肉面比,这些部位染色发浅。

 

Fleshing去肉

Removal of the fatty layer usually by fleshing machine that helps with the penetration of chemicals into the skin in subsequent process stages. Can be done when the hide is in the green state or after the liming process.

去除脂肪层的过程,通常用去肉机,有助于后续工艺阶段的化学品渗透到皮内。去肉可以在鲜皮或回鲜后进行,也可以在浸灰工序后进行。

 

Follicle毛囊

The pocket or tubular cavity in the skin surface from which the hair or wool grows.

在皮表面,毛或羊毛长出的口袋或管腔。

 

Full chrome (tanned) 全铬鞣

The qualification "full" is used with "chrome tanned" to denote that the leather has not been tanned by the semi-chrome or combination chrome processes.

这里的“全”同“铬鞣”用在一起是用来表示皮革不是半铬鞣制或铬结合鞣制。

 

Full grain全粒面

First split taken from the hair or grain side of the hide after removal of the hair and associated epidermis suitable for footwear or upholstery purposes. Scars, scratches or other imperfections may be lightly buffed or corrected but the total area so affected should not exceed 5% of the total surface of the hide. Generally, full grain leather has undergone no buffing, snuffing or splitting.

去除毛及关联的表皮后片出的靠近毛或粒面的第一层,适合做鞋类或家具。伤疤、划痕或其他缺陷可以轻轻打磨或修饰,但因此受影响的总面积不应超过 5%的皮总表面积。一般来说,全粒面皮革没有经过抛光、磨面或片层。

 

Glazing打光

The operation of producing a bright, glossy or glass-like finish on the grain surface of leather by subjecting it to the action of a machine that rapidly draws, under pressure, a tool of glass across the suitable prepared surface of the leather.

在皮革的粒面产生明亮、光泽或玻璃样涂层感觉的操作,皮革置于快速拉动的机器压力下,这是一种在适当准备的皮革表面工作的玻璃工具。

 

Grain leather粒面革

Leather which has the grain layer substantially intact and is finished on the grain side.

粒面革就是粒面完好无损,在粒面涂饰的皮革。

 

Grain粒面

Indicates the outer or hairside of a hide or skin.

是指皮的外侧或是长毛的一侧。

 

Grain pin-prick粒面针眼

Superficial pitted effect affecting the grain enamel of the leather caused by the start of bacterial action on the skin.

影响到皮革粒面釉质的表面坑点,是由细菌开始作用于皮引起的。

 

Grain quality粒面质量

Quality of the grain surface, its smoothness, fineness and freedom from flaws such as scratches, wrinkles, growth marks. This is one of the most important considerations in appraising the value of leather.

粒面表面质量,包括平滑度、细致和无类似划痕、皱纹、生长纹等缺陷的程度。这是在评价皮革价值最重要的考虑因素之一。

 

Grain slip粒面损伤

Similar to pin-prick damage, but affecting larger areas where patches of grain enamel are removed due to bacterial action.

同针眼损伤相似,但影响较大的地区,粒面釉质由于细菌作用成块或片状去除。

Grain peel粒面剥落

Extensive grain enamel loss due to bacterial action that affects a considerable area of the grain surface.

皮粒面釉质由于细菌作用广泛损失,影响相当大面积的粒面。

 

Ground drying铺地干燥

Sun drying of hides and skins for which they are stretched on the ground, flesh side uppermost and either weighted down with stone or pegged to the ground through holes around the edges; frame drying is preferable, however.

将皮铺展在地面上,肉面向上置于阳光下干燥,要么压上石头或在边缘钉在地面上; 然而框架干燥更可取。

 

Hair

A slender threadlike outgrowth of the skin, made of dead keratin cells cemented together. They grow out of tubular cavities in the dermis, the hair follicles. Hair is composed of a cuticle on the outside and a cortex with a central cavity, the medulla. The color of the hair often determines its value. For example, black cow hair is less valuable than white cow hair. Hair taken from skins and hides in depilation is used extensively in the stuffing of furniture, making carpets, plastering, and various other industrial and commercial applications.

由皮向外长的细长丝状物,由死角质细胞粘合在一起构成。他们从长真皮管腔,即毛囊中长出。毛是由外面的角质层和具有中腔的皮质层及髓质组成。毛的颜色往往决定了它的价值。例如,黑奶牛毛没有白奶牛毛那么值钱。生皮脱毛下来的毛被广泛应用于家具填充、制作地毯、掺入灰泥和其他各种各样的工业和商业用途。

 

Hair papillae毛乳头

A projection from the dermis into the hair root bulb through which nutrients are supplied to the growing hair.

从真皮突出到毛根球状物,养分通过此被提供给生长中的毛。

 

Hair sheep粗毛绵羊

Type of sheep bearing coarse hair instead of fine wool. The resulting leather has a finer and firmer grain than that of a wool sheep.

一种长粗羊毛的而不是细羊毛的绵羊。由此产生的皮革具有比细羊毛更细致和更紧实的粒面。

 

Hair slip溜毛

Slipping or loosening of the hair in hides or skins due to putrefaction. If the slip is not very bad, acceptable leather can be made; if too far advanced, the hide is damaged and can only be made into glue, Slippy hides are, therefore, often called "glue stock".

生皮上的溜毛或毛松动是由于腐烂。如果溜毛不严重,可以生成出可接受的皮革;如果溜毛过于厉害,原皮受到损坏,只可以制胶;溜毛很厉害的生皮,因此,通常被称为“制胶原料皮

 

Handle modifiers手感改善剂

Chemicals such as waxes or silicones that are used to change the feel of the surface of the leather.

似蜡或有机硅类,用于改变皮革表面触感的化学品。

 

Heifer小母牛

A female bovine less than 3 years of age that has not produced a calf.

年龄不到3年,,没有生过牛犊的母牛。

 

Hide

The skin covering from a large animal such as a cow or ox or bull.

覆盖大型动物,如奶牛、母牛或公牛的皮。

 

Horsing up搭码

Piling of wet blue or leather on a wooden stand known as "horse".Also carried out on pallets. Allows excess water to drain off and also gives time for chemical reactions with the hide or skin to occur.

将蓝湿皮或皮革的搭放在称为的木架上,有时也会放在托盘上。允许控掉多余的水分,也提供化料和皮发生化学反应的时间。

 

Insole leather 内底革

Cattle hide leather including flexible splits, vegetable or combination tanned, in sides, bends, shoulders and bellies suitable for the inner soles of footwear.

牛皮革包括柔软的剖层皮,植鞣或是结合鞣,可以是半片、背部革、肩部革和腹部皮革,适合做鞋类内底。

 

Lacquers

Chemicals that are used in the top coats of finishes and which give the properties that the top coat must have.

用于涂饰顶层的化学品,具有顶涂必须具备的特性。

 

Leather finishing皮革涂饰

The application of a protective film onto the leather surface to make it more durable and to try and hide as many defects on the leather surface as possible.

皮革表面加载的一层保护膜,以使皮革更持久耐用,并遮盖尽量多的表面缺陷。

 

Lime blast灰斑

White patches or spots on limed skin caused by calcium carbonate deposits, leading to rough grain.

灰皮表面由碳酸钙沉淀形成的白色斑或点,导致粗糙粒面。

 

Lime liquor灰液

Saturated solution of lime having excess of undissolved lime that forms a milky liquor on stirring; used in unhairing hides and skins prior to tanning.

石灰的饱和溶液,还有多余的未溶的石灰搅拌是形成的乳状液;用在鞣前皮的脱毛浸灰工序中。

 

Lime paint涂灰

Depilatory solution mixed with slaked lime or china clay to form a thin paint, which is applied to the flesh side of sheep, goat or calfskin.

脱毛溶液混合熟石灰或高岭土,形成薄的涂敷层,适用于绵羊皮羊、山羊皮或小牛皮的肉面涂灰使用。

 

Liming浸灰

The swelling of the skin using lime. The swelling is important for the proper opening up of the fiber structure that is important in the making of leather.

用石灰的皮膨胀。膨胀对皮革的适当纤维结构松散很重要,适当的皮纤维结构松散对制革是很重要的。

 

Measuring (leather)量尺

The number of square feet in a skin of light leather is determined by measuring the area of leather on one of several types of measuring machine. The leather is measured at the tannery and each skin is marked with the square area it contains (in units of square decimeters or feet). Many manufacturers also have measuring machines and check tanners' measurements against their own, as inaccuracies may be found in the original measurements because of shrinkage of the skin in transit.

轻革的平方呎数量由在几种类型之一的量革机上量出的皮革面积决定。皮革在制革厂量尺,每张皮上标有平方面积(以平方分米或英尺为单位)。不少皮件生产商也有量革机,同制革厂量出的面积进行比对,由于在运输过程中皮革可能收缩会有同原始量尺的不准确之处。

 

Milling摔软

The tumbling of crust leather in wooden or stainless steel drums to soften it.

坯革在木制或不锈钢转鼓中(随着转鼓转动)翻滚以使皮坯变软。

 

Mold霉菌

A microscopic growth or discoloration produced on leather surfaces (and on other organic substances), especially when damp. Mold on leather is frequently confused by the layman with bloom and spew, which are also discolorations, but are caused by entirely different conditions and have different effects on leather quality.

发生在皮革表面(和在其他有机物质上)的微细生长或变色,尤其是当潮湿时。皮革上的霉斑经常会引起外行人同色斑和泛霜混淆,它们也能引起变色,但是有完全不同的条件引起并对皮革质量有不同的影响。

 

Nappa纳帕

Chrome, alum or combination tanned sheepskin glove leather, drum colored.

铬鞣、铝鞣或结合鞣制的绵羊手套革,转鼓染色。(现在的纳帕个泛指软面皮革)。

 

Neutralization 中和

The removal of acidity from the wet blue or wet white which allows the dyehouse chemicals to penetrate through the cross-section of the wet blue or wet white.

从蓝湿皮或白湿皮中去除酸度的过程,以使染色材料能渗透整个蓝湿皮或白湿皮截面。

 

Nubuck牛巴克革(磨砂皮)

Hide leather, buffed on the grain side to give a velvet surface.

粒面磨去产生丝绒的表面后的皮革。

 

Patent leather漆革

Leather with a glossy impermeable finish produced by successive coats of drying oils, varnish or synthetic resins.

被由连续的干性油,清漆或合成树脂产生的不透水的亮光涂层的皮革。

 

pH scale pH

A measure of the relative acidity and alkalinity of a solution; solutions having a pH value of 7.0 are neutral; (neither acidic or alkaline); pH-values 1 to 6 denote acidity; pH values of 8 to 14 denote alkalinity.

溶液相对酸度和碱度的测量,pH值为 7.0 的溶液是中性的(非酸性或碱性),pH16表示酸性,pH值为 814表示碱性。

 

Pelt裸皮

A hide or skin, usually in the raw state with the hair or wool left on. Most frequently used to designate the skins of fur bearing animals.

(一种去除了毛的)生皮(状态),在原始状态时通常带着毛或羊毛,最经常用于区分带毛的动物皮。

 

Pickling浸酸

The lowering of the pH of the skins using sulfuric acid or formic acid preparing the skin for the tanning chemicals. The tanning chemicals penetrate easily into the skin at low pH. Is also a method of preserving stock with brine for storage or shipment. It is used chiefly for sheep, lamb and goatskins that are frequently placed in brine in barrels and shipped in this way.

使用硫酸或甲酸使皮子的pH值降低,以备鞣剂鞣制。鞣剂在低pH值下容易渗透,这也是一种用盐水保护原料皮用于储存和运输的方法,这种情况主要用于绵羊皮、羔羊皮和山羊皮,经常放在盐水桶中和以这种方式运输。

 

Pigment finish颜料膏涂饰

Denotes leather surface coating with a material containing pigment or other opaque material.

表示皮革表面涂以含颜料膏或其它不透明材料的涂层。

 

Pigments颜料膏

Colored chemicals that give the color to the leather finish but which also help to hide defects on the leather.

彩色的化学品,可以给皮革涂饰带来颜色但也也有助于遮盖皮革上的缺陷。

 

Pipeyness管皱

Characteristic of loose grain leather, which forms coarse wrinkles on bending with the grain inward.

松面皮革的特点,当向粒面方向弯曲时形成粗糙的皱纹。

 

Plating平板熨烫

A process whereby leather is put in a press under high temperature and pressure. Plating makes the leather finish very smooth and helps it stick to the leather surface.

将皮革放在具有高温和高压下的压板下加工的过程。平板熨烫使皮革涂层非常光滑,并且帮助它粘结在皮革表面。

 

Preservative防腐剂

An additive used to prevent decay or decomposition. The traditional preservative used in the making of leather is common salt, which is also important at several stages of the process of converting hides into leather. It is used in excess to saturate and preserve hides before they are taken through the leather making stages.

一个用来防止腐烂或分解的添加剂。用于制革的传统防腐剂是食盐,这也是在皮转化成皮革的过程中几个阶段也非常重要的材料。它使用过量以使生皮在进入制革阶段前浸透和防腐生皮。

 

Proteins蛋白质

Complex organic substances present in all living cells, both animal and plant. They all contain nitrogen, carbon, hydrogen and oxygen and frequently some sulphur. With the exception of small quantities of inorganic matter, fats and pigment, the chemical constituents of hides and skins are proteins. Leather is formed by the interaction of vegetable tanning or mineral tanning salts with the hide protein.

存在于所有活细胞中,包括动物和植物的复杂有机物质。它们都含有氮、碳、氢、氧,也经常含有一些硫。除了少量的无机物质、脂肪、色素,原料皮的化学成分是蛋白质。皮革是植物鞣剂或矿物鞣性盐与皮蛋白质相互作用形成的。

 

Raw stock原料皮

The hides and skins in the untanned state used for making leather.

用于制造皮革未经鞣制加工状态的动物皮。

 

Rawhide原料皮

The usual American name for cattle hide that has been dehaired and limed, often stuffed with oil or grease and sometimes undergone other preparatory processes; usually has not been tanned. Some rawhide is tanned with the hair left on. Used principally for mechanical applications such as belt facings and pins, loom pickers, gaskets, pinions, gears and also for trunk bindings and luggage.

美国人通常对已脱毛浸灰过,常常加了油或有时经过其他准备过程的牛皮叫rawhide;通常是还没有鞣制过的。有些rawhide带毛鞣制。主要用于做机械皮带装饰带和针脚,织机皮结,垫片、小齿轮、齿轮等,也做树干绑定和行李用。

 

Rechroming复铬(铬复鞣)

The process whereby chrome is added to the wet blue or wet white. Usually used to level out chrome differences from batch to batch or used when making very soft leather.

Rechroming就是用铬处理蓝湿皮或白湿皮的过程。通常用于均衡不同批次铬的差别或制作非常柔软的皮革使用。

 

Resins树脂

Chemicals such as acrylics, butadienes and polyurethanes, which bind the pigments to the leather surface during the finishing of the leather.

如丙烯酸、丁二烯和聚氨酯类的化学品,在皮革涂饰过程中将颜料膏粘合到皮革表面。

 

Retanning复鞣

The use of various types of chemicals to give the leather the properties that the final customer wants i.e. softness, fullness, etc.

各种类型的化学品,赋予皮革最终客户所要的即柔软、丰满等属性的使用。

 

Sammying挤水

The removal of water from hides or skins after they have been tanned.

在皮鞣制后除去皮内水分的操作。

 

Scratched hides划痕皮

Hides which have been damaged by scratches accumulated during the life of the animal. These are caused by contact with barbed wire fences, nails, thorns and other sharp objects. Such hides are often deeply scratched resulting in infection. They lower the quality of the hide or skin and leather.

动物生长期内积累的划痕造成的损坏的原料皮,这是由于接触带刺铁丝网、铁钉、荆棘和其他锋利的物体造成的。这些划痕降低原料皮和皮革的质量。

 

Scud皮垢

Small amounts of hair left behind on the surface of the hide or skin after the liming and unhairing process.

脱毛浸灰后少量的残留在皮表面的毛、表皮等物质。

 

Semi-aniline finished半苯胺涂饰

Leather that has been aniline dyed or stained, incorporating a small quantity of pigment, not so much as to conceal the natural characteristics of the hide.

皮革采用苯胺染色或着色,涂上少量的颜料,不会多到隐蔽皮革天然特性的程度。

 

Setting out伸展

A tannery operation employed to reduce the water content of light leathers before they are split or shaved.

在片皮或削匀前用于减少轻革皮内水含量制革厂的操作。

 

Sharpening agent加速脱毛剂

A material added to a lime liquor to accelerate the loosening of the hair of hides and skins immersed in it.

是一种加到浸灰液中,加速浸泡入其中的皮的毛松动的材料。

 

Shaved weight削匀重量

The weight of a pack of skins after shaving in which conditions they retain about 50 percents water content.

皮革削匀后的重量,在这种情况下皮中保留了约 50%水分含量。

 

Shaving削匀

The accurate reduction of the thickness of the skin.Usually done at the wet blue or wet white stage.

准确减小皮革厚度(的机器切削操作),通常在蓝湿皮或白湿皮阶段完成。

 

Shrinkage temperature收缩温度

The temperature at which measurable shrinkage occurs when leather is gradually heated in air or in a fluid. Wet shrinkage is also called hydrothermal.

当皮革置于空气或流体中时缓慢加热时开始测量到收缩时的温度。湿态下的收缩也叫湿热收缩。

 

Side半边皮

A hide that has been cut down the backbone into two sides.

一张皮沿背脊线分成两个半边皮。

 

Skin小动物皮

The skin covering from a small animal such as a sheep or goat or ostrich

覆盖小动物如绵羊或山羊或鸵鸟等身上的皮。

 

Soaking浸水

Usually the first process in the tannery where any water lost during the preservation process is re-introduced into the skin making is soft and flexible.

通常是制革厂的第一道工序,原料皮在保存过程中损失的水分在浸水中又会重新充入,使皮变得柔软而韧性。

 

Snuffed top grain修饰粒面革

Portions of the grain surface lightly abraded with emery wheel or sandpaper, so as to lessen the effect of grain damage.

粒面表面的部分由砂轮或砂纸轻轻磨掉,以减轻粒面损伤的影响。

 

Spew

Any constituents of leather that come to the surface in the form of a white crystallized deposit or dark gummy deposit.

皮革中的任何组分,迁移到皮革表面形成白色结晶沉积或发暗粘性的沉积。

 

Split片皮,剖层

If a hide or skin is split over its whole area into one or more layers, this process is termed "splitting". The layers are termed: grain split (outer split); flesh split (inner split); in heavy hides there can also be a middle split. Leather made from the flesh split or middle split is called suede leather.

如果皮沿整个面积被分成一层或多层,这一过程被称为“片皮(或剖层)。片皮后得到的层被称为︰粒面剖层(外剖层),肉面剖层(内剖层);厚的皮可能会有中间剖层。由肉面剖层或中间剖层做成的皮革称为绒面革。

 

Splitting片皮,剖层

The cutting of hides into two or more layers and thus reducing the thickness of the original skin. Usually done after the liming process or when the skin has been processed into wet blue.

将皮革切割成两层或更多层,从而减少原来皮革的厚度。通常剖层(或片皮)在浸灰后或加工成蓝湿皮后进行。

 

Splitting machine片皮机

A machine equipped with a gripping cylinder and band knife for splitting hides or skins or leather horizontally into splits or for leveling leather to a consistent thickness.

装配有夹紧辊和带刀,将皮或皮革水平分成几层或用来均衡皮革具有均匀一致厚度的机器。

 

Staking刮软

A vigorous softening process where the leather is stretched and pummeled by machine, which separates the leather fibers that have become stuck together after the drying process.

Staking

用机器将皮革拉伸和撞击,将在干燥工序中粘在一起的皮革纤维分开的一种有力的做软工序。

 

Stock原料皮

The hides or skins used by the leather manufacturers. The term "raw stock" is commonly applied to the hides and skins while they are being tanned and before they have been converted into leather.

制革厂使用的生皮。术语“raw stock”(原料皮)通常用于正在鞣制和转换成皮革的皮。

 

Suede finish绒面涂饰

A finish produce by abrading the surface of leather on a carborundum or emery wheel to separate the fibers and in order to give the leather a nap. The grain side of the leather may be suede finished in this matter, but the process is most often applied to the flesh side.

一种使用金刚砂轮打磨皮革表面来分离纤维和赋予皮革起绒效果的整饰方式。皮革的粒面可以是以这种绒面整饰,但这种工艺最常应用于肉面处理。

 

Sueded grain enamel起绒粒面

Superficial disruption of the grain enamel surface of the leather resulting in general areas of fine nap or suede affecting grain permeability in finish applications; results in dulling or loss of luster in finish application

皮革粒面表面的釉质被破坏造成一些区域的细绒或绒面,影响到涂饰在粒面的渗透性,涂饰中发暗或光泽损失。

 

Sweating发汗(脱毛)

The oldest known method of unhairing skins by bacterial action before tanning.

已知最古老的脱毛方法,在鞣制前通过细菌作用(脱毛)。

 

Syntans合成鞣剂

A general term covering the group of synthetic tanning materials used in combination with vegetable, mineral or formaldehyde tannage. These materials are also often used for specialized purposes such as bleaching, filling or mordants.

一个广泛的术语,涵盖一组合成鞣性材料,可同植物鞣剂、矿物或甲醛鞣法结合使用。这些材料也常常用于专门目的如漂白、填充或用作媒染剂。

 

Tanning鞣制

The addition of tanning chemicals to the skin. Once tanned, the hide or skin will not rot.

将鞣制化学物质加入到皮内的过程。一经鞣制,皮不会发生腐烂。

 

Toggling绷板

A tannery operation whereby skins of light leather are stretched smoothly over perforated metal frames, attached by means of toggles (metal clamps). These fasten to the leather and, in turn carry hooks that can be inserted into holes along the edge of the perforated frame.

制革厂的一个操作工序,将皮轻革顺畅地拉伸超过有排孔的金属框架,用夹子(金属夹具)夹住,将皮革系好,反过来夹具可以插入排孔框架边缘上的孔内。

 

Top coat顶涂层,面漆

Usually the final finish coat that is applied to the leather and which must give the scuff resistance and final feel of the finish.

通常是应用于皮革的最后的涂层,必须给予耐磨损性能和最后涂饰的手感。

 

Unhairing脱毛

The removal of the hair from the skin. This is usually achieved using sodium sulfide or sodium hydrosulfide.

从生皮上去除毛的过程。通常采用硫化钠或硫氢化钠完成。

 

Upper面革

A leather used for the upper portions of the shoe. Predominantly from cattle hide and calfskins, although a variety of skins are used. Usually combination tanned.

用于制作鞋的上半部分的皮革。主要使用牛皮和小牛皮,虽然也有一些其他小动物皮使用。通常是结合鞣的。

 

Washing水洗

A tannery operation whereby hides and skins are washed in clear water after having been soaked to remove curing agents, dirt, blood and manure.

制革厂的一个操作工序,经过去除防腐剂、尘土、血迹和粪便等的浸水后将皮置于清水中清洗。(现在的水洗广泛用于多个工序后面)

 

Wet blue蓝湿皮

Hides or skins that have been properly tanned using chromium sulphate as the tanning agent. Wet blue is an internationally traded commodity as it is stable as does not putrify.

经过用作鞣剂的硫酸铬鞣制后的皮。因为它是稳定和不易发霉腐烂,蓝湿皮是国际贸易商品。

 

Wetting agent润湿剂

A chemical or solution that will reduce the surface tension and allow easier penetration of the water or solution into the material.

能降低表面张力,允许水或溶液更易渗透到材料里面的化学品或溶液。

 

Wetting back回湿

Re-introduction of water into wet blue or wet white.Usually the first process in the dyehouse.

水重新进入蓝湿皮或白湿皮的操作,通常是鞣后水厂加工的第一个工序。

 

Wet white白湿皮

Hides or skins that have been tanned using aldehydes as the tanning agent

皮用醛类鞣剂(或其他白色鞣剂)鞣制后的皮。

 

 

Courtesy of the International School of Tanning Technology

 

致敬国际鞣制技术学校

 


Leather Industry Glossary Terms -水印版.pdf

451.30K

下载网币:0

下载次数:35

评论0条评论
全部评论

闽ICP备16022342号-1 增值电信业务经营许可证号:闽B2-20170197  Copyright© 2016-2026皮商云集 版权所有